Centrally Sponsored Scheme meaning: The Union government supports several developmental initiatives at the state level. These schemes are aimed at supplementing the efforts made by state governments since the central government has more resources at its disposal. The category of centrally sponsored schemes comprises programmes that have a national character or a regional character. Earlier, there were nearly 67 centrally sponsored schemes, but many of them were phased out after the suggestions of the 14th Finance Commission were implemented.
What is the difference between central sector scheme and centrally sponsored scheme?
The central welfare schemes at the state level fall into two broad categories. The first category is centrally sponsored schemes, and the second is the central sector schemes. While the Union government fully funds the central sector schemes, centrally sponsored schemes are jointly funded by the Centre and states.
How many centrally sponsored schemes are there? List of centrally sponsored schemes
There are 29 centrally sponsored schemes. These are broadly divided into two categories – core of the core schemes and core schemes. Six centrally sponsored schemes fall in the category of core of the core schemes, or the most crucial schemes for the government of India.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes: Core of the core schemes
The six core of the core schemes are:
National Social Assistance Programme
- MGNREGA or the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
- Umbrella Scheme for Development of Scheduled Castes
- Umbrella Programme for Development of Scheduled Tribes
- Umbrella Scheme for Development of Minorities
- Umbrella Scheme for Development of Other Vulnerable Groups
Centrally Sponsored Schemes: Core schemes
There are 23 other centrally sponsored schemes, which are listed under core schemes. Most of the flagship schemes of the Union government are covered under this category. The centrally sponsored core schemes are:
- Green Revolution
- White Revolution
- Blue Revolution
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna (PMKSY)
- Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna (PMAY)
- Rural Drinking Water Mission
- Swachch Bharat Mission (SBM)
- National Health Mission
- Mid Day meal in schools
- National Livelihood Mission – Ajeevika
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission
- Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (RGSA)
- Rasthriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
- National Education Mission
- Umbrella ICDS
- Mission for Protection and Empowerment of Women
- Jobs and Skill Development
- Environment Forestry and Wildlife
- Urban Rejuvenation Mission: AMRUT and Smart Cities Mission
- Modernisation of Police Forces
- Infrastructure Facilities for Judiciary
- Border Area Development Programme
Centrally Sponsored Schemes: Funding Pattern
There are several models of funding of centrally sponsored schemes, but a large part of the funding comes from the Centre. In most of the cases, the Union government and the states fund these schemes at a 60:40 ratio. In some cases, the funding ratio could be 80:20. In the case of north-eastern states, 90 per cent of the funds come from the central government. Union government spends nearly 12% of its annual budget on centrally sponsored schemes.