US stocks rose on Tuesday led by gains in technology shares as Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen was optimistic about the economy and played down the risk of a recession, while concern over the upcoming British referendum remained subdued. Yellen, however, warned that the British vote on Thursday on whether to stay in the European Union, alongside a US hiring slowdown, posed risks to the economic outlook. The British pound earlier brushed $1.48 to hit its highest level in nearly six months versus the US dollar, as markets continue to price in the momentum toward a vote to remain in the EU. Also read:\u00a0Brexit to have significant economic repercussions: US Federal "The biggest issue in the market is clearly the upcoming vote in the UK The sentiment swings back and forth and right now it is swinging toward 'remain' and that is giving support," said Rick Meckler, president of LibertyView Capital Management in Jersey City, New Jersey. The Dow Jones industrial average rose 53.18 points, or 0.3 percent, to 17,858.05, the S&P 500 gained 8.79 points, or 0.42 percent, to 2,092.04 and the Nasdaq Composite added 13.70 points, or 0.28 percent, to 4,850.91. As part of its biannual monetary policy report, the Fed warned US stock market valuations are "well above" their median over the past 30 years, the strongest such assessment in years. "The model they use may be useful in long periods of time, but hasn't proved to be useful in the short run," Meckler said, as he pointed to the low returns investors get from Treasury yields and a near-zero return on cash - partly due to Fed policies. "They inflated the asset class (stocks) and then they say, 'Gee, it's inflated'." The S&P 500 is trading at about 16.5 times expected earnings, above the 30-year median of 14.6 times, according to Thomson Reuters Datastream. On Tuesday, energy led gains on the S&P 500 with a gain over 1 percent despite declines in crude oil futures. United Continental rose 2.4 percent to $44.45 after the airline operator laid out plans to generate $3.1 billion per year by 2018. The S&P 500 posted 28 new 52-week highs and 3 new lows; the Nasdaq recorded 44 new highs and 51 new lows.