Chandrayaan 2: The mission of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will use a GSLV Mk III to put the spacecraft in Space
Chandrayaan 2 launch: The much-awaited lunar mission of Indian space agency ISRO is set to launch in the wee hours of Monday, July 15th and all eyes are set to see the probe fly away and vanish in the space. The mission of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will use a GSLV Mk III to put the spacecraft in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and then will place the Orbiter of Chandrayaan around the orbit of the Moon. This will be the first time any country will land a rover craft in the South polar region of the Moon and it is crucial from the point of view that water might be present in that part of the Moon. The possible availability of water in that region of the Moon was noted by the first mission of ISRO, Chandrayaan 1. This time ISRO’s spacecraft will carry 14 payloads to examine lunar surface and collect sample for detailed scientific studies.
The 14 payloads that the lunar probe of ISRO, Chandrayaan 2 will carry are crucial scientific equipments. Here is a brief explanation of the 14 payloads which will be carried by Orbiter Lander and Rover of Chandrayaan 2.
The orbiter of Chandrayaan 2 will carry :
- Terrain Mapping Camera 2 ( TMC 2)TMC 2 is a miniature version of the Terrain Mapping Camera used onboard the Chandrayaan 1 mission. Its main objective is mapping the lunar surface in the panchromatic spectral band. he data collected by TMC 2 will give us clues about the Moon’s evolution and help us prepare 3D maps of the lunar surface.
- The Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS)This equipment measures the Moon’s X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectra to examine the presence of major elements such as Magnesium, Silicon, Calcium, Aluminium, Titanium, Iron, and Sodium.
- Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)The XSM is installed because it observes the X-rays emitted by the Sun and its corona, measures the intensity of solar radiation in these rays, and supports CLASS. XSM will provide high-energy resolution and high-cadence measurements of solar X-ray spectra as input for analysis of data from CLASS.
- Imaging IR SpectrometerIIRS will also measure the solar radiation reflected off the Moon’s surface in 256 contiguous spectral bands from 100 km lunar orbit.
- Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC)The OHRC fitted in the Chandrayaan 2 will provide high-resolution images of the landing site to ensure the Lander’s safe touchdown by detecting any craters or boulders prior to separation. The images it will capture will be taken from two different look angles, serve dual purposes.
- Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR)The dual frequency (L and S) SAR will provide enhanced capabilities compared to Chandrayaan 1’s S-band miniSAR. The main scientific objectives of this payload are to carry out High-resolution lunar mapping in the polar regions, quantitative estimation of water-ice in the polar regions, and estimation of regolith thickness and its distribution.
- Chandrayaan 2 Atmospheric Compositional Explorer 2 (CHACE 2)This equipment will continue the CHACE experiment carried out by Chandrayaan 1. The main objective of CHACE 2 is to carry out an in-situ study of the composition and distribution of the lunar neutral exosphere and its variability.
- Dual Frequency Radio Science (DFRS) experimentThis will help to study the temporal evolution of electron density in the Lunar ionosphere. Two coherent signals at X (8496 MHz), and S (2240 MHz) band are transmitted simultaneously from satellite, and received at ground based deep station network receivers.
The Payload that the Lander Vikram of Chandrayaan 2 will carry are:
- Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA).The lunar ionosphere is a highly dynamic plasma environment. Langmuir probes like RAMBHA, have proven to be an effective diagnostic tool to gain information in such conditions. Its primary objective is to measure factors such as ambient electron density/temperature near the lunar surface and temporal evolution of lunar plasma density for the first time near the surface under varying solar conditions.
- 10.Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment (ChaSTE)ChaSTE measures the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface.
- 11.Instrument of Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)ILSA is a triple axis, MEMS-based seismometer that can detect minute ground displacement, velocity, or acceleration caused by lunar quakes.
The payloads to be Carried out by the Rover Pragyaan of Chandrayaan 2 are:
- 12.Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)APXS’ primary objective is to determine the elemental composition of the Moon’s surface near the landing site.
- 13.Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)LIBS’ prime objective is to identify and determine the abundance of elements near the landing site.
Other Payload that Chandrayaan 2 will carry are:
- 14.In-situ elemental analysis and abundance in the vicinity of the landing siteThis will be used to understand the dynamics of Earth’s Moon system and also derive clues on the Lunar interior.