Covid-19 4th Wave in India May 11 News Highlights: A Day after brief respite, India registered sharp increase in daily infections as well as Covid fatalities on Wednesday. While cases witnessed 26 per cent spike, Covid fatalities jumped 44 per cent in terms of day-on-day comparison.
In other news, Bill Gates, the Microsoft co-founder, has tested positive for Covid-19 infection. Making an official statement via his Twitter handle, Gates said that he was experiencing ‘mild symptoms’. He also said that he is in self-isolation and is consulting experts regularly. Meanwhile, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus has told pharma giant Pfizer to lower the prices of it Covid treatment to make it more affordable to people in poorer nations. In other news, West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee is scheduled to chair a high-level meeting to discuss the Covid situation in the state.
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Fifty-five percent of the families residing in Delhi and its neighbouring cities surveyed as part of a study have had “one or more members” down with one or more Covid-like symptoms in April and May, a report has claimed.
An online health platform recently conducted an survey and sought responses from residents in Delhi-NCR to a prepared questionnaire.
One of the questions — 'When you or someone else in the family unwell in April or May, (with symptome like fever, sore throat or cough, cold or congestion, fatigue or body ache, stomach ache, diarrhoea, nausea, breathing difficulties, uneasiness, etc.), did you/they take any type of COVID-19 test'.
In response, the majority, 66 percent of the residents said, “No”. Only 22 percent said, “Yes, once”, and another 12 percent said, “Yes, multiple times”.
“This means, of Delhi-NCR families that had one or more members exhibiting Covid-like symptoms in April-May, two in three did not take the Covid test. This question in the survey received 11,235 responses,” LocalCircles claimed in a statement.
The survey also found that of the people who were getting tested, 42 percent of them were opting only for Rapid Antigen Test, it said in a statement.
LocalCircles has attempted to understand the section of people who are having Covid-like symptoms but are choosing to not take the test at all.
The survey received more than 23,500 responses from residents located in all districts of Delhi and NCR cities of Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurugram and Faridabad. As many as 64 percent respondents were men while 36 percent respondents were women, it said.
“To summarise, the survey indicates that 55 percent of Delhi-NCR families have had one or more members down with one or more of these Covid-like symptoms in April and in the first 10 days of May,” the platform claimed in the statement.
This could be extrapolated to say that of those with such symptoms in Delhi-NCR, only 19 percent of the cases are coming under any kind of government data and 81 percent are “getting missed out,” it claimed.
Delhi reported 1,118 coronavirus cases and one more death on Tuesday, while the positivity rate stood at 4.38 percent, according to data shared by the health department here.
On April 30, the city had recorded 1,607 COVID-19 cases and two deaths, while the positivity rate had stood at 5.28 per cent. (PTI)
The COVID-19 tally in Madhya Pradesh rose to 10,41,792 on Wednesday after the detection of 45 new cases, while no fresh death linked to the respiratory disease was registered in the state, a health department official said.
The death toll remained unchanged at 10,735, the official said.
The positivity rate, or cases detected per 100 tests, stood at 0.5 per cent, he said.
The recovery count increased by 26 to touch 10,30,838, leaving the state with 219 active cases, the official informed.
With 7,763 swab samples examined during the day, the number of coronavirus tests conducted so far in MP went up to 2,91,61,602, he added.
A government release said 11,81,72,319 COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered so far in the state, including 46,178 on Wednesday.
Coronavirus figures in MP are as follows: Total cases 10,41,762, new cases 45, death toll 10,735, recoveries 10,30,838, active cases 219, total tests 2,91,61,602. (PTI)
Tamil Nadu recorded 39 new COVID-19 cases, including three returnees from New Delhi and Uttarakhand, aggregating to 34,54,470, said the Health Department on Wednesday.
Among those tested positive for the infection, include 17 men and 22 women, a bulletin said.
The overall death toll remained unchanged at 38,025 with nil fatalities being recorded in the last 24 hours.
The recoveries grew to 34,16,006 with 41 more people getting discharged in the last 24 hours, leaving 439 active infections.
Chennai accounted for the most of the fresh cases with 19, Chengalpet eight, Coimbatore, and Tiruvallur three each. Villupuram recorded two infections, and Tuticorin one, the bulletin said.
The State capital leads among districts with 222 active infections and 7,52,005 cases overall.
A total of 14,658 samples were tested in the last 24 hours, pushing the cumulative number of specimens examined to 6,63,40,142 so far, said the bulletin. (PTI)
Telangana on Wednesday reported 46 new COVID-19 cases taking the tally to 7,92,435.
The highest number of 30 cases were reported in Hyderabad.
A health department bulletin said 32 people recuperated from the infection raising the cumulative number of recoveries till date to 7,87,933.
The recovery rate in the state stood at 99.43 per cent.
No fresh fatality occurred due to the infectious disease and the death toll continued to be 4,111.
The bulletin said 14,586 samples were tested on Wednesday.
The number of active cases was 391, it said. (PTI)
Delhi reported 970 fresh Covid cases and one more death on Wednesday, while the positivity rate declined to 3.34 percent, according to data shared by the health department here.
A total of 29,037 tests to detect coronavirus were conducted in Delhi a day before, it stated. | READ MORE
The European Union will no longer require masks to be worn at airports and on planes starting next week amid the easing of coronavirus restrictions across the bloc, authorities said Wednesday.
The European Union Aviation Safety Agency said it hoped the joint decision, made with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, would mark “a big step forward in the normalization of air travel“ for passengers and crews.
The new guideline “takes account of the latest developments in the pandemic, in particular the levels of vaccination and naturally acquired immunity, and the accompanying lifting of restrictions in a growing number of European countries,'' the two agencies said in a joint statement. (AP
Biological E has submitted an application to India's drug regulator seeking emergency use authorisation for its Covid vaccine Corbevax as a booster dose in adults fully vaccinated with Covishield or Covaxin, sources said on Wednesday.
The Drugs Controller General Of India (DCGI) had already approved Corbevax, India's first indigenously developed RBD protein subunit vaccine, for restricted use in emergency situations for those aged five and above.
Currently, it is being used to inoculate children in the age group of 12 to 14 years.
According to the EUA application submitted to DCGI, Biological E in a phase-3 placebo-controlled clinical study, based on the drug regulator's nod, has evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Corbevax as a single-dose booster in Covid-negative adults fully vaccinated with either Covishield or Covaxin.
The study was conducted on 416 subjects aged 18 to 80 who were vaccinated with two doses of either Covaxin or Covishield with the last jab administered at least six months prior to giving the booster dose of Corbevax.
“The results showed a significant boost in immunogenicity in terms of neutralizing antibodies after 28 days when compared with placebo cohort in both Covishield and Covaxin arms. (PTI)
People with diabetes were almost twice as likely to die with COVID-19 and nearly three times as likely to be critically or severely ill compared to those without the disease, according to a study.
The researchers from the University of Aberdeen in the UK reviewed data from hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world, and found that good management of disease can mitigate the risks. | READ MORE
People with diabetes were almost twice as likely to die with COVID-19 and nearly three times as likely to be critically or severely ill compared to those without the disease, according to a study. The researchers from the University of Aberdeen in the UK reviewed data from hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world, and found that good management of disease can mitigate the risks. (PTI)
PM Modi will participate in the Second Global COVID Virtual Summit on 12 May at the invitation of US President Joe Biden. PM will deliver his remarks in the Opening Session of the Summit on the theme ‘Preventing Pandemic Fatigue and Prioritizing Preparedness’: MEA pic.twitter.com/YAWkpH8oGL
— ANI (@ANI) May 11, 2022
More than 2.8 million courses of Pfizer Inc's COVID-19 oral antiviral treatment Paxlovid have been made available at pharmacies around the United States, with the Biden administration working to improve access to the drug. As Paxlovid has become more widely used, some patients have reported that COVID-19 symptoms recurred after completing treatment and experiencing improvement. (Reuters)
The European Union will no longer require masks to be worn at airports and on planes starting next week amid the easing of coronavirus restrictions across the bloc, authorities said Wednesday. The European Union Aviation Safety Agency said it hoped the joint decision, made with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, would mark “a big step forward in the normalisation of air travel” for passengers and crews. The new guideline “takes account of the latest developments in the pandemic, in particular the levels of vaccination and naturally acquired immunity, and the accompanying lifting of restrictions in a growing number of European countries,” the two agencies said in a joint statement. (AP)
Puducherry did not register any fresh coronavirus case on Wednesday and the overall caseload remained 1,65,799. PTI
Odisha recorded 17 more coronavirus cases on Wednesday, while there was no new fatality for the eight successive day, the health department said. There are 131 active COVID-19 cases and 52 more patients have recuperated from the disease, according to a bulletin. The daily positivity rate was 0.11 per cent and a child was among the newly infected, it said, adding that 15,103 samples were tested in the past 24 hours, the bulletin stated. – PTI
COVID19 cases are rising in Punjab, UP & Delhi. I spoke with their Health Ministers. They said cases are rising but there's only mild symptoms & people are recovering in home isolation. In Maharashtra, cases are rising but not rapidly, so no need to panic: Maharashtra Health Minister Tope
Mizoram on Wednesday reported 33 fresh COVID-19 cases, eight more than the previous day, taking the state's tally to 2,27,794, a health department official said. The COVID-19 death toll remained at 697 as no fresh fatality was reported in the last 24 hours, the official said. – PTI
A United Nations Weibo post on the World Health Organization chief's comments that China's zero-tolerance COVID-19 policy is not sustainable was removed from the Chinese social media platform on Wednesday morning shortly after being published. WeChat, another Chinese social media platform, disabled the sharing function of a similar post by the United Nations. – Reuters
Shanghai Runda Medical Technology said on Wednesday it has ordered its COVID testing affiliate to carry out checks after Shanghai residents whose samples were processed by the lab questioned the accuracy of results. Reuters
The data showed that a decrease of 143 cases has been recorded in the active caseload in a span of 24 hours. The daily positivity rate has been recorded at 0.61 per cent and the weekly positivity rate at 0.74 per cent, according to the health ministry. – PTI
The COVID-19 tally in Madhya Pradesh reached 10,41,747 on Tuesday after the detection of 30 cases, while there was no addition to the toll, which stood at 10,735, an official said.
The positivity rate, or cases detected per 100 tests, was 0.5 per cent, while the recovery count increased by 29 to touch 10,30,812, leaving the state with 200 active cases, the official informed.
With 5,471 samples examined during the day, the number of tests in MP went up to 2,91,53,839, he added.
A government release said 11,81,23,007 COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered so far in the state, including 19,206 on Tuesday.
Coronavirus figures in MP are as follows: Total cases 10,41,747, new cases 30, death toll 10,735, recoveries 10,30,812, active cases 200, number of tests so far 2,91,53,839. (PTI)
Telangana on Tuesday recorded 28 new COVID-19 cases, taking the tally to 7,92,389 so far.
Hyderabad reported the highest number of cases with 20.
A Health Department bulletin said 34 people recuperated from the infection, raising the cumulative number of recoveries to 7,87,901 till date.
The recovery rate stood at 99.43 per cent.
No fresh fatality occurred due to the infectious disease and the toll remained at 4,111.
The bulletin said 14,753 samples were tested today.
The number of active cases was 377, it said. (PTI)
Odisha on Tuesday recorded 12 new COVID-19 cases, four more than the previous day, with the tally rising to 12,88,222, a health department bulletin said.
The death toll remained at 9,126 as no fresh fatality due to the infection was reported for the last one week, it said.
Fifty-three other coronavirus patients have died due to comorbidities so far.
Fifty-two more people recuperated from the disease in the last 24 hours, taking the total number of recoveries to 12,78,929, the bulletin said.
Odisha now has 114 active cases.
The daily positivity rate was at 0.08 per cent and four children were among the newly infected people, it said.
Altogether, 14,225 samples were tested for COVID-19 in the past 24 hours, the bulletin added. (PTI)
Maharashtra on Tuesday reported 223 COVID-19 cases and two deaths, taking the overall tally to 78,79,622 and the toll to 1,47,849, a health department official said.
The addition to the COVID-19 tally was a steep rise from the 121 cases recorded in the state on Monday, which incidentally was covered by Mumbai alone that saw 122 infections during the day, he pointed out.
The twin coronavirus-linked deaths took place in Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation limits, part of Thane district which falls in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, and in Satara, western Maharashtra, he said.
So far, 77,30,370 persons have been discharged post-recovery, including 161 in the last 24 hours, leaving the state with 1,403 active cases, he said.
State health department data showed Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Latur, Osmanabad, Akola, Yavatmal, Bhandara, Gondia and Gadchiroli districts had no active case as on Tuesday.
It also revealed that 25,592 coronavirus tests carried out in the last 24 hours had taken the total number of swab samples examined in the state to 8,04,22,318.
The coronavirus recovery rate was 98.11 per cent, while the fatality rate in the state stood at 1.87 per cent, as per health department data. (PTI)
Delhi reports 1118 fresh COVID-19 cases, 1015 recoveries and one death in the last 24 hours.
Active cases 5471 (ANI)
Effective mask use can drastically slow the spread of COVID-19, reduce the magnitude of the pandemic peak by flattening the curve, and reduce the prevalence of severe cases, according to a study. Researchers from McMaster University in Canada developed a model to investigate COVID-19 “variolation” — an incidental but potentially beneficial form of immunisation achieved by inhaling smaller doses of the virus than would be inhaled without a mask. They noted that a form of variolation was deliberately used in the 18th century to control smallpox. (PTI)
WHO's calculation method and data on COVID-19 deaths in India is incorrect, says Writer Priyam Gandhi-Mody (ANI)
The World Health Organization and its COVID-19 vaccine partner Gavi have no immediate plans to buy shots made by Aspen Pharmacare, the two bodies said, dealing a blow to Africa's efforts to develop its own vaccine production capacity. (Reuters)
Teams in white protective suits are entering the homes of coronavirus-infected people to spray disinfectant as Shanghai tries to root out an omicron outbreak under China's strict “zero-COVID” strategy. City official Jin Chen said Tuesday that in older communities with shared bathrooms and kitchens, the homes of anyone else who uses those facilities will also be disinfected. He tried to address public concern about damage to clothing and valuables, saying residents can inform the teams about anything that needs protection. Shanghai also suspended service on the last two subway lines that were still operating Tuesday, marking the first time the city's entire system has been shut down, according to The Paper, an online media outlet. (AP)
Tesla operated its Shanghai plant well below capacity on Tuesday, showing the problems factories face trying to ramp up output under a tightening COVID-19 lockdown, while China's capital kept up its fight with a small but stubborn outbreak. – Reuters
An analysis of the daily data shows that cases are steadily rising in Uttar Pradesh. While the tally may still not be significantly high, the uptick is there. On Monday, the daily case count crossed 300. In neighboring Delhi however, daily cases declined below 1,000-mark.
One new COVID-19 case was reported in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, taking the Union territory's caseload to 10,039, a health bulletin said on Tuesday. There are now three active cases in the archipelago, while 9,907 people have recovered from the disease thus far, including one in the last 24 hours. PTI
Authorities in Shanghai have again tightened anti-virus restrictions, just as the city was emerging from a month of strict lockdown due to a COVID-19 outbreak.
Notices issued in several districts said residents were ordered to stay home and are barred from receiving nonessential deliveries as part of a “quiet period” lasting at least until Wednesday. AP
The daily positivity rate was recorded as 0.47 per cent and the weekly positivity rate as 0.79 per cent, according to the ministry.
Mumbai on Monday reported 63 COVID-19 cases, almost 50 percent less than Sunday's addition of 123, taking the tally here to 10,60,792, a civic official said.
The death toll remained unchanged at 19,563, while the recovery count increased by 56 to touch 10,40,407, leaving the metropolis with 822 active cases, he said.
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation data showed the recovery rate was 98 per cent and the caseload doubling time was 6,347 days.
It also revealed the number of coronavirus tests carried out so far was 1,69,60,984, of which 5,810 took place in the last 24 hours.(PTI)
COVID-19 | Delhi reports 799 new cases, 3 deaths, and 1,366 recoveries. Active cases 5,3369, cumulative positivity rate 4.98% (ANI)
The government on Monday said that after receiving the first Covid vaccine shot, a beneficiary needs to schedule for or avail the second with the same mobile number used at the time of the first dose for both doses to be tagged to the same beneficiary.
In case a beneficiary uses a separate mobile number for the second dose and schedules a vaccination, it will automatically be recognised as first dose for the beneficiary, the health ministry said, amid some media reports claiming that technical glitches in Co-WIN have resulted in two first dose certificates being issued to 2.5 lakh beneficiaries in Pune.
The Co-WIN has successfully served as the digital backbone for India's Covid vaccination programme, the ministry said in a statement.
It has enabled the administration of over 190 crore doses of Covid vaccination for over 100 crore residents of the country who are registered on the platform, it said.
Such scale has been achieved without a single day of down-time, the ministry said.
An individual only needs to provide their mobile number for registration, along with minimal inputs in name, age (year of birth) and gender for scheduling an appointment for vaccination or availing a vaccine at walk-in.
As proof of identity, an option to choose from nine photo identity proofs has been accorded.
“However, it must be noted that after receiving the first dose of vaccination, a beneficiary needs to schedule for or avail the second dose of the same vaccine with the same mobile number used at the time of first dose of vaccination. This is the only mechanism for both the first and second dose details to be tagged to the same beneficiary,” the statement said. (PTI)
The COVID-19 tally in Madhya Pradesh reached 10,41,717 on Monday after the detection of 28 cases, while the death toll remained unchanged at 10,735, an official said.
The positivity rate, or cases detected per 100 tests, was 0.3 per cent and the recovery count was 10,30,783 after 19 people were discharged from hospitals, leaving MP with an active caseload of 199, he said.
With 7,554 samples examined during the day, the number of tests in the state went up to 2,91,48,368, he added.
A government release said 11,80,92,605 COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered so far, including 42,599 on Monday.
Coronavirus figures in MP are as follows: Total cases 10,41,717, new cases 28, death toll 10,735, recoveries 10,30,783, active cases 199, number of tests so far 2,91,48,368. (PTI)
The World Health Organization (WHO) and its COVID-19 vaccine partner Gavi have no immediate plans to buy shots made by Aspen Pharmacare, the two bodies said, dealing a blow to Africa's efforts to develop its own vaccine production capacity. Aspen completed a deal in March to package, sell and distribute Johnson & Johnson's vaccine in what was lauded as a game-changing moment for an under-vaccinated continent frustrated by sluggish Western handouts. But the South African company's expectations of high demand in Africa, where just a sixth of adults are fully vaccinated, have not materialised. Its CEO warned last week it would be forced to re-purpose about half of its vaccine production capacity if orders did not pick up. (Reuters)
Authorities in Shanghai have again tightened anti-virus restrictions, just as the city was emerging from a month of strict lockdown due to a COVID-19 outbreak. Notices issued in several districts said residents were ordered to stay home and are barred from receiving nonessential deliveries as part of a “quiet period” lasting at least until Wednesday. The tightened measures could be extended depending on the results of mass testing, the notices said. “Thank you for your understanding and cooperation. Together we can lift the lockdown at an early date,” said one notice issued in the city's Huangpu district and posted online. It wasn't clear what prompted the renewed tightening, with the numbers of new COVID-19 cases in the city continuing to fall. (AP)
Indian Youth Congress (IYC) activists on Monday staged a protest at Jantar Mantar here, seeking clarification from the Centre over the World Health Organization's report on COVID-19 deaths in the country. The youth wing of the Congress accused the BJP-led central government of “hiding” the actual Covid-related death toll from the people to “hide its failures”. “The figures given by WHO have been calculated on a scientific basis and the figures given by the government, on what basis they have been calculated, only the Modi government can tell,” Srinivas BV, National President of IYC, said. He demanded that the government should give financial compensation of Rs 4 lakh to the families of those who died during the pandemic and also demanded the immediate establishment of a ‘Covid Commission'. (PTI)
The Union Territory of Puducherry did not report any new COVID-19 cases and related fatalities in the last 24 hours ending 10 AM on Monday, a top Health department official said. The overall caseload remained at 1,65,797 and the total recoveries stood at 1,63,828. Director of Health G Sriramulu said in a release that the department examined nine samples during the last 24 hours and no fresh case surfaced and the active cases also remained at seven. (PTI)
Odisha on Monday reported eight new COVID-19 cases, 63 less than the previous day, with the tally rising to 12,88,210, a health department bulletin said. Two children were among the fresh patients, it said. The death toll stood at 9,126 as no new fatality due to the infection was reported for the sixth consecutive day, the bulletin said. Besides, 53 other coronavirus patients have died due to comorbidities so far. Odisha now has 161 active cases, while 12,78,870 patients have recovered from the disease, including seven on Sunday, the bulletin said. The daily positivity rate was 0.05 per cent as the new Covid -19 cases were detected from 14,599 sample tests, it said. The state has been recording around 20 cases a day for the last one month but witnessed a sudden surge in the number on the previous day with 71 fresh infections, including 64 students living in two hostels in Raygada district. (PTI)
China's financial hub of Shanghai reported 11 new COVID-19-related deaths for May 8, up from eight a day earlier, the local government said in a statement on Monday. The city reported 3,625 new local asymptomatic coronavirus cases on May 8, versus 3,760 a day earlier. It also confirmed 322 domestically transmitted symptomatic cases, up from 215 a day earlier. (Reuters)
The cumulative Covid-19 vaccine doses administered in the country crossed 190.33 crore on Sunday, the Union Health Ministry said. More than 11 lakh (11,93,312) vaccine doses have been administered till 7 pm on Sunday. The daily vaccination tally is expected to increase with the compilation of the final reports for the day by late night. A total of 20,524 precaution doses of COVID-19 vaccine were administered in those aged 18-59 years till 7 pm on Sunday, taking the total precaution doses given in this age-group to 10,93,599 so far, according to the Health Ministry data. Also, more than 3.04 crore children in the age group of 12-14 years have been administered with the first dose of Covid-19 vaccine. (PTI)
COVID-19 vaccine makers are shifting gears and planning for a smaller, more competitive booster shot market after delivering as many doses as fast as they could over the last 18 months. Executives at the biggest COVID vaccine makers including Pfizer Inc and Moderna Inc said they believe most people who wanted to get vaccinated against COVID have already done so – more than 5 billion people worldwide. In the coming year, most COVID vaccinations will be booster shots, or first inoculations for children, which are still gaining regulatory approvals around the world, they said. Pfizer, which makes its shot with Germany's BioNTech SE , and Moderna still see a major role for themselves in the vaccine market even as overall demand declines. (Reuters)
A COVID-19 vaccine designed to be taken orally not only protects against the disease, but also decreases the airborne spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to other close contacts, according to a study conducted in animals. The research, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, demonstrates the potential of the vaccine to work through the mucosal tissue to neutralise SARS-CoV-2, limiting infections and the spread of active virus in airborne particles. “Considering most of the world is under-immunised — and this is especially true of children — the possibility that a vaccinated person with a breakthrough infection can spread COVID to unimmunised family or community members poses a public health risk,” said Stephanie N Langel from Duke University Medical Center in the US. PTI
For decades, a cash-filled envelope – or “sobre” – was how hundreds of thousands of Spaniards working without legal contracts in tourism, agriculture or construction collected their salaries. COVID-19, however, may finally be putting paid to the “sobre”, economic data and workers' experiences suggest – accelerating a six-year-long crackdown in Spain on the shadow economy and providing a welcome boost to the country's public finances. The Spanish economy was the hardest hit in the euro area by the pandemic, shrinking 11% in 2020 amid tough lockdowns. Two years later, it has still not returned to its pre-virus level. But something unexpected has also happened: overall tax receipts and the number of people in official employment are now actually higher than at the point COVID-19 struck. The reason, according to labour experts, trade unionists, employers and workers interviewed by Reuters, is that one unforeseen side effect of the pandemic has been to flush many Spaniards out of the shadow economy and into regular employment. Reuters
Genetically predetermined limit on the immune system may be the key to why COVID-19 has such a devastating effect on the elderly, according to a modelling study. Researchers at the University of Washington (UW) in the US noted that the immune system's ability to combat COVID-19, like any infection, largely depends on the replication of the immune cells effective at destroying the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the disease. The study, published recently in The Lancet eBioMedicine journal, suggests that the body's ability to produce these cloned immune cells, which cannot be infinitely created, falls off significantly in old age. PTI