Indian Railways (IR) has traditionally been saddled with dual expectations: being a public utility that transports citizens of a largely poor country on the one hand and a commercial entity that must be profitable on the other. Walking this tightrope has entailed IR overcharging its freight customers to compensate for under-recoveries in its passenger segment. But this exercise may be a counter-productive one, a recent research report has suggested. According to a study conducted by Brookings India, IR overprices coal freight by about 31% to offset its \u201csocial obligation\u201d. This, in turn, raises the tariffs people have to pay for the power they consume. The math is quite simple. Coal comprises 44% of IR\u2019s freight revenues. With every unit of electricity requiring about 63 grams of coal, the transportation cost of coal ranges from Rs 0.13\/unit to Rs 1.85\/unit, depending on the distance it is ferried by railway rakes \u2013 the average cost at which states buy power from non-renewable sources is Rs 3.53 In FY17, the Rs 10,800 crore \u201covercharge\u201d on coal thermal power plants had to bear increased the cost of power, on average, by about 10 paise per unit. Going by the current per capita consumption of 1,149 units, every person in India thus ends up paying an additional power tariff of about `115 a year to compensate for subsidised rail tickets. As per the report, if passenger fares maintain the current CAGR of 4.5% and railways continues to overcharge freight to recover passenger losses pro rata, power users would end up paying an additional 18 paise for every unit of electricity consumed in FY30. Significantly, IR has to shell out more money on passenger services given the higher staff requirements, need to maintain safety standards, and expenses on station maintenance, etc. The cost of passenger services increased at a CAGR of 13.3% to `85,000 crore in the FY06-17 period. Elaborating on the complexities of raising passenger fares, Vivek Sahai, former chairman, Railway Board, said at a recent event, \u201cwhen we talk of increasing passenger fares, which category of passengers should be charged more?\u201d About 91% of railway passengers in India travel in the non-AC segment. \u201cIt is the call of the government,\u201d he felt. Speaking on the issue of freight being overcharged, HS Bajwa, executive director, coal, Railway Board, acknowledged that further hike in coal freight rates would impact the dynamics of the power sector. However, things might change with the shift in railways\u2019 freight mix after the launch of the freight corridors, he added. To cut power generation costs, the government has introduced the policy of coal linkage rationalisation, which allows thermal power plants to transfer existing coal linkages to generation units nearer to mines. Coal and Railways Minister Piyush Goyal said recently that by shortening transportation distances for 55.7 MT of fuel in the last four years, the policy had ensured annual potential savings of Rs 3,359 crore. It is another thing that IR needs to lessen its dependence on coal freight for revenue purposes. For, the average distance of coal transport has fallen 30% in five years. Compounding the problem are the growth of renewable power\u2019s share in the energy basket and upgrade of technologies ensuring a dip in coal consumption at thermal power plants.