Isro has shortlisted 15 firms to transfer the manufacturing technology of lithium-ion (Li ion) batteries for electric vehicles (EV). This move could make EVs cheaper, since imported Li ion batteries constitute the big expense factor of EVs. \u201cWe have communicated to the shortlisted firms that they will have to give a one-time fee of `1 crore. We have avoided firms with exposure to foreign equity in identifying the qualifying industrial houses or start-ups,\u201d S Somanath, director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), the rocket sciences node of ISRO, told FE. \u201cThe final move will depend on their response,\u201d he said, declining to name the firms. As many as 141 companies had applied for request for qualifications (RFQs) in connection with the technology transfer. It was a small battery of 12 scientists in VSSC in Thiruvananthapuram that developed the Li ion cell technology as early as 2011. As training manpower is scarce, technology-buyers will have to come to VSSC and familiarise themselves with every step, from transfer to documentation. ISRO sources its Li ion cell batteries (1.5 to 100 amps), to power its rockets and satellites, from Bharat Electronics, to which it has transferred the technology. The battery life is about 15 years. \u201cWe have used them in the PSLV, GSLV, GSLV Mk-III and GSAT 19. But for commercial use and for regular use on Indian roads, cost-effective improvisations would be necessary,\u201d the VSSC director said.