India on Friday submitted its first Biennial Update Report (BUR), to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), towards fulfillment of the reporting obligation.
As per reported submitted to UNFCC, India emitted 2136.84 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases (GHG) in 2010, which is an increase of 40% from the 2000 levels. Energy sector – including electricity production, fuel combustion in industries, transport sector etc contributed 71% of total emissions, a statement by environment ministry said. Sectors such as industrial processes and product use contributed 8%, agriculture and waste sectors contributed 18% and 3% respectively to the national GHG inventory.
However the environment ministry statement noted that about 12% of emissions were offset by carbon sink action of forests and croplands, considering which the national GHG emissions are arrived at a total of 1,884.31 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
The report submitted to UNFCC also noted a range of climate-friendly measures initiated by India through eight National Missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change and other initiatives such as Integrated Power Development Scheme, Renewable Purchase Obligations, enhancement of cess on coal, Perform Achieve and Trade Scheme and National Program for LED based lighting.
India is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases after China and the United States. It becomes the fourth when the European Union is considered as one block. But it has a much lower per capita emission as compared to the other countries. In 2010, India’s per capita emissions, an important consideration in the equity debate in climate change debate, was 1.56 tonnes of CO2 equivalent, less than one third of the global average.
As per the provisions of the Convention, countries need to periodically provide information in the form of their National Communication. BUR contains national GHG inventory of India for the year 2010, prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Till now, 23 countries other than India, including Brazil, South Africa, South Korea have submitted their BURs. China, world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases is yet to submit its report.
Brazil has submitted its BUR, but has given only provisional inventory. Developed countries are required to submit a report known as the Biennial Report (BR), which is to be submitted every alternate year and is subjected to International Analysis and Review.
As per the agreement arrived in recently concluded UN conference on parties on climate change in Paris, developing countries were to submit their first biennial update as soon as possible..
Ahead of the Paris meet last year, India has submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC. India has pledged to improve the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030, along with increasing the share of non-fossil fuels-based electricity to 40% . India has also agreed to enhance its forest cover to absorb 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide.