The new vehicle emission norms (BS-VI) and the Ujjwala Scheme providing LPG connections to women below BPL helped check the rapid decline in the air quality (AQ) of Delhi-NCR, says a study conducted by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) and The Energy Research Institute (TERI). The concentration of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) could have gone from 109 mg cc in 2016 to 135 mg cc in 2030, but with interventions, it would be at 118 mg cc, the study says, adding that more such measures would be required for reducing emission from different sectors. ARAI director Rashmi Urdhwareshe and TERI director-general Ajay Mathur made the study public at the SIAT automotive show in Pune. Data was collected from 20 locations with nine of them in Delhi and 11 in NCR. READ ALSO |\u00a0Haven\u2019t filed I-T returns yet? Beware, Finance Ministry tracking non-filers using data analytics ARAI and TERI have worked on the project to understand the sources of pollution and apportion the particulate matter contribution from these sources. According to the study, air quality was influenced by several far-off sources requiring regional scale controls. The study said in each of these contributing sectors, a cluster of interventions could reduce the pollutant concentrations. Increasing LPG penetration in NCR by 75% in 2025 and 100% in 2030 could reduce PM 2.5 and PM 10 by 6%. Also, the use of agricultural residues in power plants would reduce PM 2.5 and PM 10 by 8% in 2025, the study says. Fleet modernisation\/retrofit of all vehicles to BS-VI equivalent could reduce PM 2.5 by 8% in 2025 and PM 10 by 6%, while the switch to 20% private electric vehicles and 40% electric two-wheelers would reduce PM 2.5 by 5% and PM10 by 4% by 2025. The highest gains of 50-100% in emission reduction could be witnessed in fuel by switching to gas from solid fuels. There would be a 12% reduction in PM 2.5 and PM 10 by 2025 and a 23% reduction in both by 2030, the study added.