Problems related to transaction fees on Ethereum is hampering the growth of Ethereum blockchain, according to Cointelegraph. For executing transactions on Ethereum, implementation and execution through smart contracts, and a fee is required to reward network participants that store machine based programmable contracts. Ethereum based miners are required to simulate steps for a contract’s extension, which is costly and limits scalability.
According to Cointelegraph, Arbitrum intends to lower network congestion and transaction costs by removing work and data storage from Ethereum’s mainnet or layer-1 (L1). Arbiturm is based on a cryptocurrency design for parties to implement a smart contract as a virtual machine (VM), which runs on the Arbitrum VM architecture. Parties with stake in the output of VM can select someone to act as managers directly. VM’s state is expected to be advanced at a reduced cost to the verifiers through reliance on managers, as verifiers keep track on the hash of VM’s state. Managers are monetised by Arbitrum to arrive at an out-of-band agreement on the working of VM. When a decentralised application (dApp) runs on Arbitrum chain, one has the option to select the group of validators for performing the consensus process.
Based on data by Cointelegraph, through Arbitrum token bridge, users can transfer ETH and ERC-20 Ethereum tokens to a layer-2 scaling solution known as Arbitrum One. On the contrary, an Outbox contract accepts data from Arbitrum and adds it to Ethereum blockchain, as Ethereum can identify and verify any off-chain activities. Due to EthBridge’s inputs and outputs being publicly verifiable, Ethereum can identify and verify any off-chain activities.
Insights from Cointelegraph stated that Arbitrum makes use of ArbGas to keep track on the cost of execution on an Arbitrum chain. As there is ArbGas cost, cost of calculation is total of the ArbGas fees of the instructions in it compared to Ethereum’s gas limit. The fee is charged to compensate Arbitrum’s chain validators for their expenses. ArbGas is considered different from Ethereum gas as it tries to estimate emulation on AVM, whereas Ethereum gas serves a different purpose on Ethereum.
(With insights from Cointelegraph)