By Dr Nishakant Ojha
Realising the irrationality, miscalculation, or some bad intention or unanticipated agenda that may lead an alarm or trigger to launch an attack, some strategists have always been unwilling to place full confidence in the stability of deterrence. It is naturally understood that measures to enable a defence against an attack when it is launched, either to intercept enemy weapons before they can detonate on target or to blunt the effects of detonations that do occur. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their delivery systems could have incalculable consequences for national, regional and global security. The emerging effects of these types of weapons i.e (CBRN) – which include nuclear devices, radiological material, biological pathogens and chemical substances – are some of the biggest threats but the most important aspects of WMD role is the medium by which it can play a disaster role needs to be analysed & on priority.
The first three decades of the Space Age, demonstrate that the superpowers have found it technically and economically attractive to use space only for the five so called traditional missions of reconnaissance and surveillance, communication, for the Defence and other strategic purposes briefly, before passing on to the host of new technologies that might in the future greatly lengthen this list of military space missions.
With respect to the Reconnaissance and Surveillance -Electromagnetic radiation emitted or reflected from terrestrial objects can be detected from space in any of the three wavelength bands to which the intervening atmosphere is transparent, namely, the visible band, certain infrared bands, and the microwave radio band. It follows that these are the bands used for military surveillance.
Further in the realm of nuclear operations; space is used to detect missile launches and nuclear detonations. Missile warning data permit the safe escape of bombers, tankers, cruise missile carriers, airborne command posts, and, for launch-under-attack (LUA), intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).. But the most important use of missile launch and nuclear detonation data would probably be to give decision-makers a clear assessment of what happened, information crucial to responsible action and, under the chaotic circumstances, hard to come by otherwise.
With respect to the Communications there are only two ways to communicate information over long distances within seconds: by landline (including transoceanic cable) and by radio. Because the earth is round, line-of-sight radio contact between widely separated points on the earth’s surface is impossible. One way to propagate radio waves over the horizon is to bounce them off the ionosphere; shortwave (HF, high frequency) radio propagation in this manner. But ionospheric reflection is unreliable and cannot support large rates of message traffic. Long distance communication companies have long placed microwave radio relays on towers and mountaintops for over-the-horizon relay. The communications satellite is just an extension of the relay principle to higher altitudes and consequently longer relay distances.
If need to compress on the Quantum embedded Technologies Solutions vulnerabilities & misuse by Bad Actors that how the quantum terrorists could bring the quantum internet to its knees almost instantly and without revealing their identity. More worrying still is that there is no obvious way to counter this new kind of attack. How a malicious actor might destroy this cloud and the information it contains. One approach would be to simply break the entanglement, which is a famously fragile form of existence. But this would be something of a sledgehammer—a classical attack on a quantum system.
Basically interest falls to know how much more subtle kind of quantum attack. This kind of attack would involve injecting some random information that becomes entangled with the rest, thereby making the original information impossible to retrieve from the mix. By itself this does not work. A lone-wolf attacker cannot overwhelm the quantum state with random information.
But if quantum terrorists work in unison, an entirely different scenario unfolds. Also if several attackers inject their quantum information into the network at the same instant, they can disrupt the global quantum state. In that case the initial state of the system cannot be retrieved, even in principle.
Now the question how many Bad Actors wanted to happen this, the shocking conclusion is that it requires only three or more quantum terrorists working in unison.
With respect to the Next Generation Weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass effects terrorism
There has been widespread concern of using nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological weapons – or what usually are labelled weapons of mass destruction (WMD). There also has been concern about another catastrophic terrorist attack entailing the non-traditional use of conventional means. In the coming times a country has to be prepared for this .
Against this background, the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office (ASCO) of the Defence Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) asked Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to analyze the dimensions of possible “Next Generation WMD and WME Terrorism.” Particular focus was to be placed on the potential groups that could carry out such attacks, what new groups or other entities might be attracted to the use of WMD or WME over the next 3-15 years, and what motivations might lead different terrorist groups or other entities to escalate to WMD violence.
For Mass Effects Modern society is becoming increasingly penetrated by networking technology. From the networking of physical objects to the networking of financial dealings, the Internet has become a societal and global command and control system, the Internet also has resulted in a new cyber-space battlefield with new targets, specific vulnerabilities, and a myriad of channels of attack. Attacks across the Internet taking advantage of those channels of attack are labelled here “network attacks.” One possible purpose of such attacks would be to damage or destroy “things” – and for that reason, it warrants brief inclusion here as part of next generation WMD or WME terrorism.
For next generation WMD or WME terrorism, two issues are of particular importance: the spectrum of potential attacks that are conceivable; and the range of potential attackers. Consider each dimension in turn. With regard to the spectrum of potential attacks, as set out in the Lukasik analysis, a useful typology focuses respectively on economy-oriented attacks and people-oriented attacks. Depending on the specific network-based attack, the impact would vary. Some of these attacks would not fall within the category of mass effects attacks directly though they might facilitate later, larger-scale attacks. Thus, a network based attack aimed at reputation assassination would have a physically limited impact but could be quite important politically. But network attacks could well have immediate mass effects in terms of loss of life, physical destruction or disruption, and other metrics, e.g., attacks on critical energy or oil infrastructure. Attacks that leveraged interdependencies across many economic sectors would be among the most damaging of the latter attacks.
The dynamics of Space, Quantum & viz-a-viz Next Generation WMD and WME Bad Actors — we can by conclude that over the next 3-15 years, the number of terrorist entities should be expected to continue to increase, continuing an historic pattern of exponential growth in terrorist groups, leaders, and followers. Multiple geopolitical trends – many tied to the impact of globalization on individuals, groups, and nations – all comprise drivers for this emergence of more extremist groups. Many of these groups will be characterized by religious extremism; but there also will be many other motivating ideologies. The Internet increasingly will be a powerful and multi-faceted terrorist enabler, including WMD and WME terrorism. In parallel, technological trends point toward the capability to do extreme violence becoming accessible to smaller and smaller entities, including individuals. Though direct production of nuclear weapons probably exceeds the technical capabilities of all but states, terrorist groups could well obtain nuclear weapons by purchase, theft, or gift. Ties between terrorist groups and traditional criminal organizations are likely to make it easier for such groups to gain access to – and to transport – WMD. With regard to specific groups, the next generation WMD threat will continue to be most characterized by the threat that the Bad Actors will successfully acquire and use any one of chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons. Aborted or failed attempts to use biological and radiological weapons already have occurred. The repeated use of chlorine-explosive mixtures by them in many countries is no longer simply setting an isolated precedent but instead institutionalizing a new mode of terrorist attack. With regard to nuclear weapons, barring some unexpected reversal, the debate within the Jihadist community about the legitimacy and justification of WMD.
Author is Eminent Expert –Counter Terrorism, CSO& Advisor Cyber & Aerospace Securities.
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