At a micro level, this ranged from IT automation in individual departments, electronic file handling and access to entitlements, public grievance systems, service delivery for high volume routine transactions such as payment of bills and tax dues to meeting poverty alleviation goals through the promotion of entrepreneurial models and provision of market information.
The implementation of the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) in May 2006 was with the vision of making all government services accessible to the common man in his/her locality through common service delivery outlets to ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs. For e-governance projects to be successful, they also have to be user friendly to create real accessibility for the common citizen, the poor and the backward, thereby fulfilling the vision of e-governance.
NeGP currently consists of 27 mission mode projects (MMPs) and 8 support components to be implemented at the Central, State and Local government levels. These include projects such as income tax, customs and excise and passports at the Central level, land records, agriculture and e-district at the State level and panchayats and municipalities at the local level.
The effective use of ICT services in government administration has greatly enhanced existing efficiencies, driven down communication costs and increased transparency in the functioning of various departments. It has also given citizens easy access to tangible benefits, be it through simple applications such as online form filling, bill sourcing and payments, or complex applications like distance education and tele-medicine.
It is worth talking about Aadharthe new Unique Identification (UID) project which aims at providing a 16-digit identification number to all citizens of India. With this project, India will be the first country to implement a biometric-based unique ID system for its residents on such a large scale. The importance accorded to the UID project is reflected in the roping in of Nandan Nilekani to head it with the rank of a Cabinet minister and the constitution of a special group of Union ministers headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to oversee its implementation. Nandans reputation for both strategy and execution is formidable and the project is being rolled out in record time.
Inability to prove identity is one of the biggest barriers in India that prevents the poor from accessing benefits and subsidies. This holds true for public as well as private sector agencies and till date, there remains no nationally accepted, verified identity number that both residents and agencies can use with ease and confidence.
As a result, every time an individual tries to access a benefit or service, they must undergo a full cycle of identity verification. Different service providers also often have different requirements in the documents they demand, the forms that require filling out and the information they collect on the individual.
There are clearly, immense benefits from a mechanism that uniquely identifies a person and ensures instant identity verification. The need to prove identity only once will bring down transaction costs for the poor. A clear identity number would also transform the delivery of social welfare programmes by making them more inclusive of communities now cut off from such benefits due to their lack of identification. It would enable the government to shift from indirect to direct benefits, plugging massive leakages and helping verify whether the intended beneficiaries actually receive funds/subsidies. A single, universal identity number will also be transformational in eliminating fraud and duplicate identities, since individuals will no longer be able to represent themselves differently to different agencies.
With proper implementation, the transformative potential of the UID scheme can be enormous. It could enable easier access to a wide number of services such as bank accounts, passports, driving licenses and LPG connections. Proof of identity and greater financial inclusion could lay the basis for checking fraud and corruption, avoiding duplication and targeting intended beneficiaries for a range of programmes such as the NREGS and the PDS.
For residents, the UID will become the single source of identity verification. Once residents enroll, they can use the number multiple timesthey would be spared the hassle of repeatedly providing supporting identity documents each time they wish to access services such as obtaining a bank account, passport, driving license, and so on.
By providing a clear proof of identity, the UID will also facilitate entry for poor and underprivileged residents into the formal banking system and the opportunity to avail services provided by the government and the private sector. The UID will also give migrants mobility of identity.
For registrars and enrollers, the UIDAI will only enroll residents after de-duplicating their records. This will help registrars clean out duplicates from their databases, enabling significant efficiencies and cost savings. For registrars focused on cost, the UIDAIs verification processes will ensure lower KYR costs. For registrars focused on social goals, a reliable identification number will enable them to broaden their reach into groups that till now have been difficult to authenticate. The strong authentication that the UID number offers will improve services, leading to better resident satisfaction.
For governments, eliminating duplication under various schemes is expected to save substantial money for the government exchequer. It will also provide governments with accurate data on residents, enable direct benefit programmes and allow government departments to coordinate investments and share information.With the growing need to free society from corruption and making technology accessible to the common man, dependency on such projects will increase. One very crucial barrier that e-governance projects will remove is the artificial barrier. The common man is happy to see the reduction in the queue to pay utility bills. This has been successfully achieved in states such as AP, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, etc.
India will be the first country to implement a biometric-based unique ID system for 1.2 billion residents. The UID will serve as a universal proof of identity, allowing residents to prove their identity anywhere in the country. The timing of this initiative is encouragingthe creation of the UIDAI coincides with growing social investment in India, a shift in focus to direct benefits, and the spread of IT and mobile phones, which has made the public receptive to technology-based solutions.
In the next 5 years, we see e-governance realising its vision of making all government services accessible to the common man in his/her locality. An inter-connected, inter-operable, efficient, transparent and accountable government, with services reaching every citizen irrespective of geography, region or accessibility will create a phenomenal impact at the grass roots level in the rural and semi-urban areas.
The writer is chairman, CA Technologies (India)