Unemployment 1% higher in cities: NSSO

New Delhi, Nov 18 | Updated: Nov 19 2005, 06:37am hrs
Unemployment is more urban than rural. As per latest official data, 1.7% of persons in the urban areas were unemployed in January-June 2004 as compared to 0.7% in rural areas.

Also, the unemployment rate (i.e. number of persons umemployed per 1,000 persons in the labour force) in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas, according to both the usual status and current weekly status approaches, said the report.

The unemployment rates are higher for females in the urban areas.

According to the report Employment and Unemployment Situation in India: January-June 04, about 72% of households belong to rural India and account for nearly 75% of the total population.

Urban households were found to be smaller than rural households with average household size of 4.5 for the urban sector compared to 5 for the rural sector.

The report based on the data of the 60th round survey on employment and unemployment carried out by the

National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) added that the rural sector continued to employ more labour than the urban sector as nearly 44% of rural persons and about 37% of urban persons were in the labour force.

The percentage of men employed was much higher than women for both urban and rural areas as 55% of rural males and 56% of urban males were in the labour force. The corresponding percentages for females were 32% and 16% in the rural and urban areas respectively.

About 43% of persons in the rural areas and 35% in the urban areas were employed as per their usual status.

For males, about 54% were employed in both the rural and urban areas. Percentage of females employed was lower than males but was higher for the rural sector (32%) than the urban sector (15%), said the report.

Interestingly, the percentage of self-employed women in the rural areas (62%) was much higher than in urban areas (45%). It was also higher than the figure for rural males (57%) and urban males (44%).

The proportion of casual labour was higher among female workers than among male workers in the urban areas, the report said.

The survey findings point out that 84% of the rural female labour force was employed in agriculture while for males this proportion was 66%. In the urban sector, the tertiary sector engaged 59% male workers and 535 female workers.

The secondary sector, on the other hand, accounted for nearly 35% of male workers and 31%of the female workers.

The wage difference between male and female workers was more prominent in the urban sector, where a male casual labourer earned Rs 76 per day while a female casual worker earned Rs 44 per day.