The Congress demanded that the election be put off, but Deputy Chairman N Vidyasagar, who incidentally belongs to the party, went ahead with the process.
The Congress announced that it was withdrawing its candidate Farooq Hussain from the contest protesting the conduct of election through secret ballot.
Soon after his election was formally announced, Goud took over as the Chairman of the 40-member House.
Goud secured 21 votes in the poll, including eight of the Congress defectors.
The proceedings witnessed exchanged of words between TRS and Congress members as the latter sought stalling of the election process, terming it as "undemocratic".
"Conducting the election through a secret ballot is undemocratic. It only exposes the ulterior motive of the ruling TRS," Congress leader in the Council D Srinivas said.
It was not right on the part of TRS to lure members of the other parties, he said, and demanded that the election be put off.
However, Deputy Chairman N Vidyasagar, who incidentally belongs to the Congress, went ahead with the election process.
He said the decision on disqualification of Congress MLCs, who crossed over to the TRS, would be taken after due examination of the matter.
Protesting the secret ballot, the TDP members also boycotted the election.