However, even with such underestimation, the removal of protectionism on manufactured products leads to annual welfare gains of between $250 to $620 billion. Some welfare gains naturally accrue to consumers in the developed countries, thanks to lower prices. But there are also welfare gains of between $80 bn and $310 bn to the developing countries, with the inclusion of agricultural liberalisation pushing up welfare gains to developing countries by another $30 bn per year. The resultant growth by 2015 will reduce poverty ratios by 13 per cent in the developing countries. Not only are these numbers huge, compared to such gains, any official development assistance by the developed countries is insignificant. Hence, there is an inherent hypocrisy in developed country attitudes. But before lambasting such countries, the developing countries should also note the reports point that average tariffs for trade between developing countries are higher than tariffs faced in developed countries. In general, high tariff bindings, the large gaps between bound and applied rates and complex procedures also harm the cause of developing country exports. The task before the DDA is not one of only projecting North/South dichotomies. Beyond scoring negotiating points, the more important issue is one of reducing protectionism across the globe. Huge welfare gains from opening up were promised in the course of the Uruguay Round (1986-94). Because of loopholes in agreements and imperfect liberalisation (such as in agriculture), those gains didnt materialise. The DDA has yet another opportunity of ensuring that promised gains and poverty reduction goals are not messed up once again.