Much of the Beltway establishment scoffed at the promise of cost savings. The prevalent attitude in Washington is that reform isnt real unless the little people suffer; serious savings are supposed to come from things like raising the Medicare age (which the Congressional Budget Office recently concluded would, in fact, hardly save any money) and throwing millions of Americans off Medicaid. True, a 2011 letter signed by hundreds of health and labour economists pointed out that the Affordable Care Act contains essentially every cost-containment provision policy analysts have considered effective in reducing the rate of medical spending. But such expert views were largely ignored.
So, hows it going The health exchanges are off to a famously rocky start, but many, though by no means all, of the cost-control measures have already kicked in. Has the curve been bent The answer, amazingly, is yes. In fact, the slowdown in health costs has been dramatic.
OK, the obligatory caveats. First of all, we dont know how long the good news will last. Health costs in the United States slowed dramatically in the 1990s (although not this dramatically), probably thanks to the rise of health maintenance organisations, but cost growth picked up again after 2000. Second, we dont know for sure how much of the good news is because of the Affordable Care Act.
Still, the facts are striking. Since 2010, when the Act was passed, real health spending per capitathat is, total spending adjusted for overall inflation and population growthhas risen less than a third as rapidly as its long-term average. Real spending per Medicare recipient hasnt risen at all; real spending per Medicaid beneficiary has actually fallen slightly.
What could account for this good news One obvious answer is the still-depressed economy, which might be causing people to forgo expensive medical care. But this explanation turns out to be problematic in multiple ways. For one thing, the economy had stabilised by 2010, even if the recovery was fairly weak, yet health costs continued to slow. For another, its hard to see why a weak economy would have more effect in reducing the prices of health services than it has on overall inflation. Finally, Medicare spending shouldnt be affected by the weak economy, yet it has slowed even more dramatically than private spending.
A better story focuses on what appears to be a decline in some kinds of medical innovationin particular, an absence of expensive new blockbuster drugs, even as existing drugs go off-patent and can be replaced with cheaper generic brands. This is a real phenomenon; it is, in fact, the main reason the Medicare drug program has ended up costing less than originally projected. But since drugs are only about 10% of health spending, it can only explain so much.
So what aspects of Obamacare might be causing health costs to slow One clear answer is the acts reduction in Medicare overpaymentsmainly a reduction in the subsidies to private insurers offering Medicare Advantage Plans, but also cuts in some provider payments. A less certain but likely source of savings involves changes in the way Medicare pays for services. The program now penalises hospitals if many of their patients end up being readmitted soon after being releasedan indicator of poor careand readmission rates have, in fact, fallen substantially. Medicare is also encouraging a shift from fee-for-service, in which doctors and hospitals get paid by the procedure, to accountable care, in which health organisations get rewarded for overall success in improving care while controlling costs.
Furthermore, theres evidence that Medicare savings spill over to the rest of the health care systemthat when Medicare manages to slow cost growth, private insurance gets cheaper, too.
And the biggest savings may be yet to come. The Independent Payment Advisory Board, a panel with the power to impose cost-saving measures (subject to Congressional overrides) if Medicare spending grows above target, hasnt yet been established, in part because of the near-certainty that any appointments to the board would be filibustered by Republicans yelling about death panels. Now that the filibuster has been reformed, the board can come into being.
The news on health costs is, in short, remarkably good. You wont hear much about this good news until and unless the Obamacare website gets fixed. But under the surface, health reform is starting to look like a bigger success than even its most ardent advocates expected.