But more than a demographer, important as that was, Bose was an anthropologist by inclination. And that is where his concept of BimaruBihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradeshcame in. When he put down the phrase, in a note to the then prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, Bose was pointing to the particular social aspects that economists needed to take into account while doing their planning. Centuries of backwardness, for instance, wasnt going to go away just like that, particularly for certain groups of peoplespecial programmes would need to be developed to tackle them. In the same manner that coastal states/countries tend to have higher rates of growth, there is a reason why certain areas have lower growth rates. The different responses of different sets of people, their different histories, Bose argued, needed to be built into economic models and policies.