Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). The volcano has an exceptionally symmetrical cone and is a well-known symbol of Japan and is frequently depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers. It is currently classified as active with a low risk of eruption. The last recorded eruption was in 1708. A popular tourist attraction, an estimated 200,000 people climb Mount Fuji every year, 30% of whom are foreigners. The ascent can take anywhere between three and eight hours, while the descent can take from two-five hours.
Kilauea is the most recent of a series of volcanoes that have created the Hawaiian Archipelago. It is a very low, flat shield volcano, vastly different in profile from the high, sharply sloping peaks of stratovolcanoes. Kilauea is one of the most active volcano on earth, an invaluable resource for volcanologists. Thirty-three eruptions have taken place since 1952, not including the current eruption, which started on January 3, 1983, and is still ongoing.
Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and the death of 10,000-25,000 people. It has erupted many times since and is today regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby. The height of the main cone has been constantly changed by eruptions, but presently it is 1,281 m (4,202 feet).
Volcán Osorno is a 2,652-m-tall (8,701-feet) conical stratovolcano lying in the Los Lagos Region of Chile. It stands on the south-eastern shore of Lake Llanquihue, and also towers over Todos los Santos Lake. Osorno is known worldwide as a symbol of the local landscape, and is noted for its similar appearance to Mount Fuji. Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes, with 11 historical eruptions recorded between 1575 and 1869. The lava flows generated during these eruptions reached both Llanquihue and Todos los Santos Lakes.
Mount Etna is the second-largest active volcano in Europe, currently standing 3,329-m-high (10,922 feet), though this varies with summit eruptions. The mountain is 21 m (69 feet) lower now than it was in 1981. Located on the east coast of Sicily, the fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south.
Volcán Arenal, is Costa Rica’s most active volcano, located 90 km (56 miles) north-west of San José. The Arenal volcano rises 1,657 m above sea level and overlooks Lake Arenal. It is geologically considered a young volcano and the age is estimated to be less than 3,000 years. In 1968, Arenal had an eruption and destroyed the small town of Tabacón. Due to the eruption, three more craters were created on the western flanks, but only one of them still exists today.
Mayon Volcano is renowned as the ‘Perfect Cone’ because of its almost perfectly conical shape. The upper slopes of this amazing volcano are steep averaging 35-40 degrees and are capped by a small summit crater. Its sides are layers of lava and other volcanic material. Mayon is the most active of the active volcanoes in the Philippines, having erupted over 49 times in the past 400 years. The most destructive eruption of Mayon occurred on February 1, 1814.
Mount Kilimanjaro is currently an inactive stratovolcano in north-eastern Tanzania near the border that it shares with Kenya. At 5,892 m (19,331 feet) above sea level, Kilimanjaro is Africa’s highest peak and the world’s highest free-standing mountain. As such–and aided by its relatively easy ascent–Kilimanjaro has become a major destination for mountaineers and trekkers from around the world. Although positioned close to the equator, Mount Kilimanjaro is famous as Africa’s snow-capped mountain looming over the plains of the savannah. The top of the mountain, however, has seen a retreat of the most recent covering of glaciers in recent year.
Krakatoa (Gunung Krakatau) is a volcanic island between Java and Sumatra. The eruption of mount Krakatoa on August 26-27 in 1883 was among the most violent volcanic events in modern and recorded history. The eruption was equivalent to 200 megatons of TNT—about 13,000 times the nuclear yield of the atomic bomb that devastated Hiroshima. The cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth in western Australia, about 1,930 miles (3,110 km) away. In 1927, eruptions caused smaller Anak Krakatau (‘Child of Krakatoa’) to rise from the sea, and the emerging volcanic island continues to grow at an average rate of 7 m per year. The latest eruption of Anak began in April 2008.
Gunung Bromo is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif in east Java. At 2,329 m (7,641 feet), it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Java. The top of the volcano has been blown off and the crater inside constantly belches white sulphurous smoke. It is surrounded by the Laut Pasir (Sea of Sand) of fine volcanic sand. The overall effect is unsettlingly unearthly, especially when compared to the lush green valley’s around the Tengger massif.