Of the 11 minicars tested by Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), a US non-profit organisation, only one won an overall “acceptable” rating in the so-called small overlap front crash test: the Chevrolet Spark made by General Motors, the IIHS said.
But the Spark does not protect occupants as well as larger,
heavier vehicles with the same rating, IIHS said. Minicars can weigh more than 650 kg less than the average model made for the 2013 model year, preliminary federal data show.
“Small, lightweight vehicles have an inherent safety disadvantage,” Joe Nolan, IIHS senior vice-president for vehicle research, said in a statement. “Unfortunately, as a group, minicars aren’t performing as well as other vehicle categories in the small overlap crash.”
IIHS introduced the test in 2012 and said it is more difficult than head-on crash tests used by the US government.
In the test, part of the car’s front end hit a 5-foot rigid barrier at 65 kilometres per hour. The vehicles were rated in three areas: Structural integrity, the effectiveness of the restraints and potential injuries.
Every minicar, including the Spark, got a “poor” or “marginal” rating for structural integrity, which IIHS called “the most fundamental element of occupant protection.” These are the two worst ratings possible in this test.
Four minicar models were rated “marginal”, including the 2014 Ford Fiesta. Six were rated “poor”, including the Toyota Prius C. None of the models
received the best possible rating of “good”.
The Honda Fit and Fiat 500 were the worst performers.
Most cars are now built with safety cages that can handle head-on collisions and other crashes without crushing the driver and others inside the vehicle.
But small overlap crashes, involving only the small front
corner of a vehicle, affect the outer edges of the car, which are less protected. In those cases, the front wheel, suspension system and firewall bear the brunt of the crash, which can lead to serious leg and foot injuries.
The average vehicle made for the 2013 model year weighs 1,833 kg and gets 10.2 kilometres per litre of petrol, according to preliminary federal data. The 2014 Spark gets a combined 14.45 kilometres per litre.
Minicars help automakers meet consumer demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles as well as federal standards that call for a 50% improvement in automakers’ vehicles by 2025.