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Bhagwati has backed the Gujarat model of development.
Economists, however, point out that the lower consumption expenditure is based on historical and cultural reasons. In Gujaratís case, it could be because of high savings and investments rate. ďThe data has to be seen in context of the previous surveys,Ē said NR Bhanumurthy, economist at NIPFP. In the previous NSS survey in FY10, Kerala remained amongst top spending states with average urban monthly per capita expenditure of Rs 2,413 and rural spending of Rs 1,835; Gujaratís urban spending at Rs 1,909 remained below national average.