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The year 2013 was a challenging one for the Indian economy and financial markets. The economy faced a number of challenges, such as a widening current account deficit, a weak currency and sticky inflation. There has been significant polarisation in market returns, with exporters and domestic consumption sectors like IT, pharma and fast-moving consumer goods doing exceedingly well and others, such as real estate and capital goods, underperforming.
The debt and currency markets took a u-turn in May, seeing a spike in yields and a sharp depreciation of the rupee, only to stabilise at the end of the year. Investors have been shunning equities in favour of bank deposits, gold and real estate. In five years, bank deposits have increased by R42 lakh crore as against outflows of R67,000 crore from equity mutual funds.
The mutual fund industry has done relatively well in this tough market environment. Assets under management (AUM) of the MF industry have grown from R7.6 lakh crore as on December 31, 2012 to R8.9 lakh crore as on November 30, 2013. The growth in AUM has been in the fixed income category, especially fixed maturity plans and liquid funds. Equity funds and gold ETF saw their AUMs and folio count falling. The MF industry has lost close to 40 lakh equity folios, which is a very disturbing sign.
Over the last five years, foreign institutional investors have invested $90 billion and domestic mutual fund investors have redeemed $13 billion. This shows that Indian investors have not taken a long-term view on the market and are chasing asset classes that have done well in the last one year.
However, 2014 looks promising for the mutual fund industry as some of the regulations put in place will positively impact the industry. First, participation of distributors on exchanges will help increase penetration in smaller cities. Second, the proposed regulations on real estate investment trusts may open a new investment avenue for the industry and the MF utility platform will make it easier for investors to invest across funds.
At the current juncture, the equity market is trading at about 15 times