Kohli had entered the Asia Cup, trailing number one ranked South African batsman AB de Villiers by two ratings points.
Kohli's tournament aggregate of 189 runs in three innings with 136 against Bangladesh as his series best earned him 12 ratings points, which has put him ahead of South Africa's ODI captain by nine ratings points.
Following his knock of 136, Kohli had achieved his career high rating of 886 but finished with 881 ratings points after scores of 48 (against Sri Lanka) and five (against Pakistan). He didn't bat against Afghanistan.
Kohli was last ranked number one just before the ODI series against New Zealand in January.
Other Indian batsmen to head in the right direction include Shikhar Dhawan in eighth (up by three place), Rohit Sharma in 22nd (up by one place) and Ravindra Jadeja in 50th (up by 12 places).
Strong batting performances in the Asia Cup have resulted in a reshuffle of the positions, with Sri Lanka's Lahiru Thirimanne, who won the player of the tournament, making the biggest progress. The left-handed opener has jumped 29 places to a career-best 39th position.
In the ICC Player Rankings for ODI bowlers, India spinners -- Ravindra Jadeja and Ravichandaran Ashwin are the biggest gainers inside the top 20.
Jadeja has earned four places and is now in fifth position after claiming seven wickets in four matches, while Ashwin's nine wickets in the series has given him a lift of seven places that has put him in 14th position.
Amit Mishra has also gained five places to be at 36th.
Meanwhile, India team has been guaranteed to retain its number two position in the ICC ODI Team Rankings at the 1 April cut-off date.
India finished with 113 ratings points, just one ahead of third-ranked Sri Lanka, to walk away with a prize of USD 75,000.
There was no other change in the table with all sides retaining their positions.
Australia were assured of the number one ranking on the cut-off date in January after India lost their ODI series against New Zealand 0-4. The Aussies will receive the ODI Shield as well as a cheque of USD 175,000.