The yesterday's study comes as concern mounts in the West for Afghanistan's future. The United States is preparing to withdraw most of its troops this year, ending a war launched after the September 11, 2001 attacks.
But the survey by the firm ATR Consulting found that 80 per cent of Afghans thought that the government was in control with similarly strong levels of trust in the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police, two institutions rebuilt after the 2001 fall of the Taliban regime.
"This was surprising to us. We had a lot of assumptions before starting this study," said Lola Cecchinel, a French expert on Afghanistan who heads research for ATR Consulting.
"There is a widespread narrative about Afghanistan, about there not being any progress in the past 11 years. A lot of people are saying that the country is going to fall apart," she said as she presented the study at the Centre for National Policy, a Washington think tank.
By contrast, the findings showed "extremely high" levels of trust in national institutions and wide agreement that progress has been made since the Western-backed government took over from the Taliban.
Only 12.7 per cent of men -- and just 1.6 per cent of women -- supported a return of Taliban rule across Afghanistan. The Taliban imposed an austere brand of Islam during its 1996-2001 regime, including depriving women of virtually all activities outside the house.
But the survey showed regional differences, with support for the Taliban higher in the movement's historic base of the Pashtun-dominated South. While 73 per cent of northern Afghans said their lives have improved over the past decade, only 29 per cent said so in the south.
The survey aimed to be as comprehensive as possible through in-person interviews with 3,038 Afghan men and 1,180 women across geographic and ethnic lines in September and October.
The interviews took place before Afghan President Hamid Karzai -- who is trying to seek a peace deal with the Taliban as he leaves office -- rebuffed the United States on signing an agreement to allow a smaller number of US troops to stay from 2015.
The consulting firm carried out a separate telephone poll that found that 68 per cent of Afghans supported the deal with the United States, Cecchinel said.