The reasons behind his leaving the company or his next assignment could not be ascertained.
When contacted, a Samsung India spokesperson said: "Samsung does not comment on rumour or speculation."
Taneja could not be contacted despite repeated attempts.
Taneja, who is Country Head (Mobile and Digital Imaging) at Samsung India, joined the firm last year from Bharti Airtel where he was serving as the Operations Director (South India and Sri Lanka).
Previously, he has also served as ChieMarketing Officer for Nokia India and as Vice President (Sales & Marketing) for the beverages and foods business at Hindustan Lever.
Similar to global trends, Samsung is the market leader in smartphone category (38 percent share) in India too, a segment that grew almost three-fold to over 44 million in 2013.
In the overall mobile phone segment too, it was the number one player with a 19 per cent share in Q4 2013, according to research firm IDC.
Globally, Samsung had 30.2 per cent share of the smartphone segment and more than 24 per cent share of the overall mobile phone market in Q1 2014, as per IDC data.
The news of Taneja's resignation comes in the wake of Executive Vice President Chang Dong Hoon, stepping down following the criticism of Samsung's latest phone, Galaxy S5.
Dong Hoon was Samsung's head of the design team in the IT and mobile communications division and head of design strategy team at the firm's corporate design center.