M S Dhoni, who reached his maiden double century yesterday went past Tendulkar's 217 scored against New Zealand in 1999-00 at Ahmedabad.
Dhoni reached the feat in the 144th over when he first hit a flat six off Nathan Lyon to reach 217 and then took a single to surpass Tendulkar's score.
The M S Dhoni however fell eight runs short of equalling Andy Flower's highest individual score by a skipper - 232 against India.
Highest Individual scores by Indian captains:
224 M S Dhoni vs Aus (Chennai)
217 Sachin Tendulkar vs New Zealand (Ahmedabad)
205 Sunil Gavaskar vs West Indies (Mumbai)
203 MAK Pataudi vs England (Delhi).