The list, released on Thursday, also includes the second appearance of singer Beyonc, who is featured on the magazine's cover, and the seventh for former U.S. Secretary of State and possible 2016 White House contender Hillary Clinton.
Lesser-known names including Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala and Kathryn Sullivan a former NASA astronaut and current administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were both featured in the list.
"One of the more striking things about many of the women on this year's list of the world's most influential people is that being the first female or the youngest to triumph in a particular field isn't even the most exciting part of their story," Time staff said of the list, published on the magazine's website Time.com.
The 41 women listed topped the previous record of 38 set in 2012.
Notable men included Russian President Vladimir Putin and US President Barack Obama, brothers and influential conservative donors Charles and David Koch, and former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.
From the sports world, the NBA's first openly gay player, Jason Collins, was joined by 17-year-old professional golfer Lydia Ko, and Seattle Seahawks cornerback Richard Sherman.
Indian politician Arvind Kejriwal won the Time 100 reader's poll with over 260,000 votes.