Indians prefer self-employment. This was revealed at the 62nd round of the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) report on employment situation of India in 2005-06. The number of self-employed people were highest both in rural and urban India in 2005-06. While the national average was 254 per 1,000 people in rural India, it was 149 for the urban areas.
The survey reveals that in rural India, more than half of all workers were self-employed - 57% among males and nearly 62% among females. The corresponding figures in urban India were 42% for male and 44% for female.
The percentage of regular wage and salaried employees was relatively lower among females as compared to males in both rural and urban India. For males its was 10% while its was 4% for female in the rural areas, and 42% for male and 40% for female in the urban areas.
The number of unemployed are maximum in urban India at 18 per 1,000 people surveyed while it was just 8 in the rural areas. According to the usual status approach (review of work in a full year), the unemployment rate in the rural areas was around 2% (almost 3% for male and 2% for female). In urban areas the unemployment rate was 5% (5% for male and 8% for female). The unemployment rate was, however, higher for females than that for the males in the urban area but it was lower than that for males in the rural area.
Among educated people, (with education level secondary and above), in the age group 15 - 29 years, the unemployment rate in rural and urban area was 12% and 16% respectively.
The number of casual labourers was highest in rural India at 433 per 1000 people surveyed. Rural Andhra Pradesh had the maximum number of casual labourers at 531, followed by Himachal Pradesh at 526, Tamil Nadu at 525 and Maharashtra at 507.
In the urban areas, Himachal Pradesh had the maximum number of casual workers at 410 per 1,000 followed by Tamil Nadu at 406 and Goa at 394.
About 56% of rural males and 31% of rural females belonged to the labour force. The corresponding proportions in the urban areas were 57% and 15% respectively. The proportion of female casual labourer was about 1% higher than that of male casual labourer in both rural and urban areas. he average monthly wage for regular wage or salaried employees in rural areas was Rs 138.74 for male and Rs 87.71 for female.