Purely financial players, by contrast, seem to be more enthusiastic about the euros strength than they have been for years. Speculative futures bets in favour of further euro appreciation have reached their highest level since the summer of 2011and the only time they were higher than that in the past decade was in the period just before the Lehman shock. Significantly, both of these speculative crescendos were followed by sharp euro declines, since currency markets generally turn when bullish sentiment reaches extreme levels. But there is a deeper reason to expect the euros seemingly irresistible rise to reverse.
Currencies tend to move in trends for many years, and the fact is that the euros long-term trend against the dollar is still almost certainly downwards, despite the big gains of the past few months.
The euros long-run trend against the dollar turned down decisively more than five years ago. Since the euro hit an all-time peak of $1.60 in April 2008 it has moved in several cycles, making lower highs and lower lows. The previous peak before this weeks was in April 2011 at $1.48 and the one before that was in November 2009 at $1.52. The subsequent lows, in June 2010 and July 2012, were both around $1.20. It seems reasonable to expect this level to be tested again in the next year or so.
The direction of the dollars long-term trend against the euro (and before that the deutsche mark) has always been determined mostly by events in America, rather than Europe. The dollar rose strongly from 1980 to 1985, driven by the surging confidence in U.S. geopolitical power and economic revival under Ronald Reagan. The dollar then fell even more sharply from 1985 to 1991, as Presidents Reagan and then Bush consciously pursued a policy of dollar devaluation. After trading sideways until 1995, the dollar then appreciated strongly again until 2001 as the U.S. enjoyed the extraordinary economic growth and fiscal improvement under President Clinton, with the federal budget deficits completely eliminated for the first time. This trend reversed within weeks of President George W Bushs election and the dollar declined almost monotonically from January 2001 until April 2008.
Throughout these decades, European events, even ones as spectacular as German reunification, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the creation of the euro, were never more than an obligato accompaniment to the main theme that seemed to determine long-term currency trends, which was the waxing and waning of global confidence in the US.
The key question for the euro now is whether this confidence will decay further or revive. Will US growth accelerate, as most investors and the Fed are now expecting And will Washington break out of budgetary gridlock If either or both of these things happen, then the euros reversal could be quite abrupt.
If so, the many European economists, investors and businessmen worried about export competitiveness will be delighted. But they should be careful what they wish for. The strong euro has hurt European exporters, but it has been unexpectedly helpful in stabilising the macroeconomics of the euro zone.
From a purely economic standpoint, the strong euro has begun to rebalance Europes economy from excessive reliance on exports, towards consumption-led growth. This rebalancing is healthy because Europes trade surpluses have grown too large to be sustainable. They are also becoming unacceptable to trading partners, as evidenced by the unprecedented criticism levelled this week at German trade surpluses in the US Treasurys quarterly currency manipulation report.
Secondly, the strong euro has produced a surprising political benefit by tilting the balance of policy debate in Europe away from austerity, towards monetary and fiscal expansion. Until the summer, the German Bundesbank was fiercely attacking the European Central Bank (ECB) for supporting the Italian and Spanish bond markets and for extending easy credit to weak banks. But dire warnings about lax ECB policies debasing the euro have been hard to take seriously, even within Germany, while the euro is the worlds strongest currency, rising not just against the dollar but also against the yen, the pound, the Swiss franc and the Chinese yuan.
Thus the euros unexpected strength has turned the Bundesbank monetary hardliners into a European version of the Tea Partya group of grumpy old men who harp on about irresponsible monetary and fiscal policies, but cannot seem to decide whether the imminent danger is inflation or deflation, banks that are too generous with credit or too stingy, a currency that is too weak or too strong.
As the Bundesbank and its austerian allies in Germany, Austria and Finland have been sidelined, France, Italy and Spain have been able to relax their fiscal austerity programs, allowing tentative economic recoveries to start. Meanwhile Mario Draghi, the ECB president, has gained the freedom really to do whatever it takes to preserve the euro, thereby restoring confidence to the bond markets and banking systems in Italy and Spain. So far so good, but what will happen if the euro reverts to a trend of long-term decline