The case began as a complaint in December 2010 by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Local 760 accusing Noel Canning Corps owner, Rodger Noel, of reneging on a verbal agreement concerning a new collective bargaining agreement.
But after the US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) sided with the workers, the US Chamber of Commerce intervened on behalf of the company and elevated the importance of the case by putting the focus on whether President Barack Obama had exceeded his authority in appointing members of the board.
The high court is set to hear longer than usual 90-minute oral argument in the case on Monday on the constitutional issue of a presidents capacity to fill senior government posts without the usual Senate confirmation at a time when the 100-member body is in a recess.
Presidents of both parties have made many such recess appointments to install officials who otherwise would have had a hard time winning Senate confirmation.
The chamber calls itself the worlds largest business organization, representing more than 3 million US businesses.
It has a reputation as a formidable legal advocate for business interests. It often participates in challenges to government regulations on behalf of all its members and regularly files friend-of-the-court briefs in the US Supreme Court and, increasingly, in other courts.
In the Supreme Courts 2012-2013 term, the chamber won a favorable outcome in 14 of the 18 cases in which it filed friend-of-the-court briefs. The Noel Canning case marks the first time the chamber has directly represented a member before the high courts justices.